Habitat Hectares Socring Method ハビタット・ヘクタール手法 栖息地植被评价手法 中文手稿Ver.α

栖息地评价手法,来自澳大利亚,现在美国,英国都在使用此手法进行定量评价,辅助各种决策,法律

如生物多样性补偿(Biodiversity Offsets)生物多样性信贷交易(Biodiversity Banking),环评影响评价法。

就此评价手法本身而言,他没有保护环境的功能,他只是一个工具,用来测量,可视化结果供大家参考,方便决策。

此中文手稿还有许多错误需要纠正,仅供参考。

也欢迎各位电邮本人一起探讨有关的话题。  Email: g1283109@tcu.ac.jp ,或在本站留言等。

[download id=”1885″ template=”HH METHOD”]

Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China -Focus on Biodiversity Offsets and Banking-

Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

-Focus on Biodiversity Offsets and Banking-

Hongwei Shi

Tokyo City University,

Landscape Ecosystems Tanaka-Lab, 3-3-1 Ushikubo-nishi, Tuzuki Ward, Yokohama City, Japan

Email: g1283109@tcu.ac.jp

 

KEY WORDS: Eco-Compensation, Biodiversity Offsets, Biodiversity Banking, Polluter Pays Principle, Sustainable development

Abstract

Although China has a very rich biodiversity, it is also part of a region where biodiversity resources have declined rapidly. Threats to biodiversity in China include a large human-uses of economic,industrial developments, climate change, and exotic invasive species, which reduced the habitat quality, resulting in losses of biodiversity. In 2004 year, China started to develop a huge ecological compensation mechanisms, a narrow understanding is payment for ecological services or payment for environmental services, broad understanding is PPP (Polluter Pays Principle) or BPP (Benefit Pays Principle), the biodiversity offsets compliance with PPP, put it in to this mechanism. Importantly this mechanism involve biodiversity conservation, although not enough,  thorough this paper focus on biodiversity offsets and banking as a supplement to improve this mechanism. In many countries such as America, Canada, Australia had imported biodiversity offsets and banking. Through literature research methods to analyze the status of biodiversity conservation in China, including laws, policies, case studies, to compare with the countries being implemented biodiversity offsets and banking. The results show that China exists the concepts of biodiversity offsets in the law (Forest Law) and policies (Technical Guideline for Environmental Impact Assessment Ecological Impact), in addition, there are similar cases in China (China’s Forest Revegetation Fee). According to the above situation, China can try to do the pilot project like UK, Malaysia, and France.

 

“Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China -Focus on Biodiversity Offsets and Banking-” の続きを読む

Biodiversity Offsets?在中国

中国到底有没有Biodiversity Offsets?

武藏工业大学 石宏伟

Biodiversity Offsets的定义

论标题 “中国到底有没有Biodiversity-Offsets?”, 首先得知道 “ Biodiversity Offsets ” 的定义,所谓“ Biodiversity Offsets ”简单概括的说就是在人类活动中,被人类行为破坏的区域的生物多样性, 在其他区域重新构筑的这一行为。最早诞生于美国,在美国Biodiversity Offsets被称作为 “Mitigation Banking” , “Biodiversity Offsets”则是国际上的通用叫法,每个国家都有各自的命名方法,比如在日本被称作为 “生物多様性オフセット/生物多様性代償/代償ミティゲーション”,澳大利亚和美国一样为 “Mitigation Banking”。其含义是一样的。在中国笔者尚未找到有关 “ Biodiversity Offsets ” 确切的翻译文字,或许可以借鉴日本的叫法 ,暂定为 “生物多样性补偿”,要注意这里有别于 “中国生态(系)补偿”的概念,后者定义范围更广且没有“ Biodiversity Offsets ”的具体方法说明,两者没有直接的联系。“ Biodiversity Offsets ”详细的说,举下面这个通用例子,人类在开发环境资源的时候,应该遵守[回避] [最小化] [补偿] (田中,大田黑 2008)这三个原则(其实这三个原则不仅在“ Biodiversity Offsets ”中有体现,我国《森林法》第十八条也有类似的规定。),首先,假定在某区域进行商业或市政开发,进行环境评价,是否一定要在此地开发?还是尽可能的回避开发,如果开发是必须的,那么应当尽量把规模缩小,如果以上都无法满足,那么就是最后一步,进行Biodiversity Offsets,把此区域的生境,移植到其他的区域,可以是等量的移植,等量移植在美国称作 No Net Loss ,或是构筑比原来更为丰富的生境 Net Gain。 Biodiversity Offsets在美国是作为政策实施的,开发者必须遵守以上三个原则。

中国是否存在Biodiversity Offsets的事例

根据森林趋势(Forest Trends)旗下的分支机构The Business and Biodiversity Offsets Program (BBOP)的报告书《State of Biodiversity Markets-offset and compensation programs worldwide》(2010)中国是存在类似事例的,报告书中把全球生物多样性减缓补偿项目分为三类,分别是 “Compensation Funds(补偿基金)”, “One-Off Offsets”(一次性的生物多样性补偿), “Mitigation Banking” (不仅进行Offsets,而且还有信用交易,市场化模式操作)。中国的森林补偿基金被列为上述的第一类,属于政策驱动,具体见下表(1),我国森林生态补偿基金如果硬是要归类为“ Biodiversity Offsets ”的话,那也只能说是处在“ Biodiversity Offsets ”的初级阶段,与美国那套完善的生物多样性补偿制度比较,与其说是不足,不如说有质的区别,这也是BBOP把他定义为类似事例的原因。或许换一种角度去定义我国的森林生态补偿基金,比如 “Payment for ecosystem services”(PES,生态系功能付费),会更合适。

 

 

 

全球生物多样性减缓补偿项目
  Compensation Funds One-Off Offsets Mitigation Banking
实施方法 政策法律 政策法律/自发自愿 政策法律
 

政策事例l   中国森林补偿基金

l   巴西减缓产业冲击政策(开发商的Offsets基于环境评价法框架下的生物多样性补偿l   美国 aka 湿地生物多样性补偿

l   澳大利亚 新南威尔士生物银行所取得的成就以及复杂程度对于市场基础设施的要求运用到大规模或者战略性保护依赖于项目设计会有欠缺非常适合生态效益依赖于项目的设计与执行力度依赖于项目的设计与执行力度依赖于项目的设计与执行力度实施项目主体政府开发商第三方,政府或者开发商透明度中等稍微欠缺比较透明

表(1)笔者翻译自《State of Biodiversity Markets-offset and compensation programs worldwide》

 

未完待续